- “India is world’s largest democracy, fastest growing economy and often stated those political parties funded through shadow economy”. In this context, what do you understand the term Electoral bonds and its importance and relevance on cleansing the system of political funding. (01.05.2017)
The electoral bonds are the financial instruments for making donations to political parties. Electoral bonds are like a certificate that can be bought from the banks by anyone by cheque and then it is deposited to the account of the concerned political party. It is considered as a donation and is tax-free and the name of the donator is also not revealed.
Proposing steps towards transparent funding of political parties, the Finance Minister Shri Jaitley proposed that banks will issue Electoral Bonds to enable donations to political parties.
Salient features of Electoral bonds:
- All political parties are required to notify their bank account to the Election Commission from where they can access this money.
- A political party using their notified bank account, can convert these bonds into money
- This bond can only be bought using cheques or digital payments.
- The electoral bonds which will be issued by notified banks can be redeemed by recognised political parties within a prescribed time limit.
Transparency– This is one of the main reasons for introduction of electoral bonds. Although the donors using the bonds will be anonymous (their names will not be disclosed in the audit report to be filed by the party), their records will nonetheless be maintained by the banks.
Secrecy– This is particularly important for the donors in the sense that disclosing their identity can result in them facing attacks from rival or opposition groups.
Promoting digitization– This is one of the steps forward in the Digital India Campaign. Earlier, the donors used to donate in cash in fear of losing anonymity. As this was not curbed, huge chunks of black money flew into the party funds. But through creation of electoral bonds, donors could make digital payments and yet keep their identity secret.
From the above discussions it is observed that the main purpose of introduction of electoral bonds is to stop channelizing illegal or black money into party funds. It is the need of the hour, but going through the problems in the scheme, the objective above cannot be achieved so easily. Suggested reforms;
- If all the transactions and accounts being done and used by political parties are regulated under a piece of legislation, it might prove to be more effective and simple.
- There are many political parties at present which do not file the return every year. Setting aside the election of such candidates against whom there are evidences of spending black money or excluding them from future elections as penalty can be a strong measure.
- Voters have to be made aware through awareness campaigns as often illiterate voters are bribed for votes before elections.
- Setting of a election fund
- “To tackle the issue of malnutrition recently the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) released a set of standards for fortification of eatables with the aim of addressing malnutrition in the country”. In this context, what do you meant by fortification of eatables? Discuss its importance to address the issue of malnutrition and related issues in the country. (02.05.2017)
Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.
Issue of malnutrition:
Malnutrition continues to be a significant public health problem in India despite having several major programmes.
Consuming only limited food items results in dietary deficiencies in the long run.In severe forms, such deficiencies can have serious effects. For instance, iron deficiency leads to critical problems during pregnancy, and not enough Vitamin A can lead to poor vision, infections, and skin problems.
The high prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight among children, poor condition of nutrition among women, high maternal mortality rates and high incidences of non-communicable diseases in the country.
The issue of undernourishment of children is complex, it is not just lack of food (macronutrients) but the quality (micronutrients) as well as the capacity to absorb and utilize nutrients. These are affected by poor water and sanitation. Hence we need a more holistic approach to address all these factors.
Lack of institutional framework to address malnutrition, the lack of inter-sectoral convergence amongst multiple government departments critical to address this problem, the lack of monitoring and accountability in public funded nutrition programmes.
- Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS)
- Mid –Day Meal (MDM)
- Food Security Act.
To tackle the issue, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) released a set of standards since then, it has focussed on awareness- and consensus-building.
FSSAI lays down science-based standards for articles of food and regulates their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of safe food to citizens of the country.
- “With the view of reducing out –of –pocket expenditure on healthcare, the recent union budget rolled out new elimination targets for some communicable diseases”. Bring out the issues and challenges faced by government to achieve the targets. (04.05.2017)
The recent Union Budget 2017- 2018 has seen the incorporation of a number of proposals pertaining to the healthcare sector. In those proposals, the government has displayed its intention to curb the incidence of certain communicable diseases, within a particular time-frame.
The budget of 2017-18 focused on achieving ambitious targets of eradication of diseases like kala-azar and filariasis (by 2017), leprosy(by 2018), measles(by 2020) and tuberculosis(by 2025).
The success of these ambitious targets can be achieved completely in cases of some diseases while in some, it seems to be a distant target.
- Diseases like Kala-azar and filariasis can be controlled by controlling the vector parasite. Also these diseases are confined to a smaller portion of the country.
- Tuberculosis eradication is most challenging since India has highest cases of it mostly due to polluting air, absence of high quality drugs and lack of awareness.
- Public health expenditure being mostly diagnostic rather than preventive is another hurdle as people have the mindset of spending only after getting infected rather than taking preventive measure to avoid the disease altoghter.
- Low level of spread of information among the masses regarding tuberculosis and its fatality will make the target of government harder to achieve.
- Lack of access to drugs which is a great cause of concern.
Though not impossible, the government can achieve its aim, if it promotes the programmes for diseases like it has done for polio eradication in the past which was a massive success. Despite the challenges faced by the government, a strong, judicious and focused approach can definitely help the government to achieve these targets and make the country take a step ahead in becoming a healthier nation.
- “Even though Smart City Mission is a laudable programme, there is some shortcomings like the narrow focus on infrastructure and the poor and the marginalized are excluded”. Do you agree with this view? Discuss. (05.05.2017)
Smart Cities Mission is an urban renewal and retrofitting program by the Government of India with a mission to develop 100 cities all over the country making them citizen friendly and sustainable. A smart city is an urban development vision to integrate information and communication technology (ICT) and Internet of things (IoT) technology in a secure fashion to manage a city’s assets.
- Better rail-road- air connectivity within the region
- Public health facilities
- Availability of drinking water
- Sanitation and waste management infra
- Affordable housing
- A smart city wouldn’t eliminate corruption. Corruption might just become more sophisticated and lead to all the benefits being washed away.
- There is a risk that the gap between the poor and the rich might increase, especially if the working classes can’t find any place in the new cities.
- Like all grand infrastructure plans, this one needs a critical resource, CAPITAL. India doesn’t have enough capital to produce 100 cities which will results in poor spending in infrastructure developments.
- Smart city can invite all the dangers of urban heat islands with real estate sector minting money from it.
Government may include Mechanism of solar energy conservation, Cheap transport facilities, Free health facilities centers, Least production of GHG in comparison of current levels in cities, Proper Waste management for clean rivers and lakes in and around cities in the smart city model of development.
Recent trends in the migration pattern reveals that, there is a significant increase in the number of people moving from rural areas to the urban centres in search of better living opportunities. The government should provide equal opportunities to all the citizens in the cities.
- “Aiming to overcome India’s technological deficiencies, security related problems and to develop Make in India initiative –the need of the hour is stable and close relationship with USA”. Do you agree this view? Give arguments in favour of your answer. (05.05.2017)
Prominent leaders of India’s freedom movement had friendly relations with the United States of America which continued well after independence from Great Britain in 1947.In 1961, India became a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement to avoid involvement in the Cold War power-play between the United States and the Soviet Union. In the 1990s, Indian foreign policy adapted to the unipolar world and developed closer ties with the United States.
In the 21st century, Indian foreign policy has sought to leverage India’s strategic autonomy in order to safeguard sovereign rights and promote national interests within a multi-polar world. A unique feature of this relation is that U.S. is the world’s oldest democracy, while India is the world’s largest democracy.
Increase in bilateral trade & investment, cooperation on global security matters, inclusion of India in decision-making on matters of global governance, upgraded representation in trade & investment forums, admission into multilateral export control regimes and joint-manufacturing through technology sharing arrangements have become key milestones and a measure of speed and advancement on the path to closer US-India relations. In 2016, India and United States signed the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement and India was declared a Major Defense Partner of the United States.
- Now, India is deviating towards USA because she needs to fulfill her national interest and that is going to happen by developing closer ties with USA. Indian moves towards the United States are driven in large measure by China’s open hostile acts vis-a-vis India.
- Apart from this, Indian government is developing closer ties with the USA keeping in the mind the huge Indian diaspora in USA. India surely doesn’t want the people there to suffer any form and thus, it is one amongst the many reason to develop amiable nature with USA.
- India and USA share a commitment to democracy and the rule of law. Both are diverse and enterprising. The UK and other European countries have been the traditional allies of USA. The European power has waned considerably and India is a more suitable partner in a time dominated by affairs in the Asia-Pacific.
- India has been a victim of Islamic conquests and Islamic terrorism for the past 1400 years and has experience fighting extremists. India has been slow in modernizing its armed forces due to the lethargy of previous Governments. Moving closer to USA will enable India to access the most advanced military technologies available, thus rapidly modernizing in an increasingly volatile neighborhood.
India and the USA have deep economic and cultural ties that is cherished in both the countries. Americans and Indians innovate together in myriad different fields often leading the world in the most cutting edge fields. This tie is as natural as it get can get and it is all set to become deeper.
- “Recently India faced tough peer review at United Nations Human Rights Council against delay in enacting human rights laws especially the long-pending anti-torture statute in national interest”. In the light of the statement, discuss the issues and challenges in protection of human rights in the country. (06.05.2017)
India, the world’s most populous democracy, continues to have significant human rights problems. But longstanding abusive practices, corruption, and lack of accountability for perpetrators foster human rights violations.
Issues and challenges:
- Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA): which permits soldiers to commit serious human rights violations with effective immunity.
- Maoist insurgents known as Naxalites continued to target government schools and hospitals.
- Radical Hinduism: The recent political strides the country went through have created certain apprehensions for minorities and human rights activists.
- Freedom of Expression: The government continued to use the Foreign Contributions Regulation Act (FCRA) to restrict access to foreign assistance by domestic nongovernmental organizations.
- Protection of Children’s Rights: Children remained at risk of abuse, with a large number forced into dangerous forms of labor, and without proper access to health care and education, vulnerable to sex trafficking, homelessness, forced labor, drug abuse, and crime—and need protection.
Apart from the various schemes, laws, Acts launched by the Government but still in many areas the government continued to fall short, both with respect to legal reform and implementation. Government still needs to pay more attention towards their laws and policies and check whether it is properly carried out. There is a dire need to sensitize the women, children, youth and various other communities of the people to spread about human rights and different ways to break its shackles
- “Constitutionally, the governor is bound to swear the leader elected by party but the governor has discretion to some extend”. In the light of the statement, examine various discretionary power of governor in India. (08.05.2017)
Being a constitutional head in the state, the Governors have executive, legislative, financial, judicial and discretionary powers.The discretionary powers of Governor in state are much more extensive in comparison to the President in centre in India. For example, Article 163 of the constitution says that there shall be a Council of Ministers in the states with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Governor in exercise his functions, except those which are required to be done by the Governor on his/ her discretion.
Discretionary powers of governor:
- Governor can dissolve the legislative assembly if the chief minister advices him to do following a vote of no confidence. Now, it is up to the Governor what he/ she would like to do.
- Governor, on his/ her discretion can recommend the president about the failure of the constitutional machinery in the state.
- On his/ her discretion, the Governor can reserve a bill passed by the state legislature for president’s assent.
- If there is NO political party with a clear cut majority in the assembly, Governor on his/ her discretion can appoint anybody as chief minister.
- The constitution further mentions that if any question arises whether a matter falls within the Governor’s discretion or not, decision of the Governor shall be final, and the validity of anything done by the Governor shall not be called in question on the ground that he ought or ought not to have acted in his discretion. Moreover, what advice was tendered by the Governor to the Ministry cannot be inquired into a court.
- Governor determines the amount payable by the Government of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram to an autonomous Tribal District Council as royalty accruing from licenses for mineral exploration.
- Governor can seek information from the chief minister with regard to the administrative and legislative matters of the state.
- Governor has discretion to refuse to sign to an ordinary bill passed by the state legislature.
Many times governors are used to interfere & gain political control over states machinery. So it will be only appropriate to strengthen the office of governor by appointing upright and politically neutral persons to the post.
Accepting the recommendation of Sarkaria and Punchi commission regarding governors should be implemented at earliest e.g.-
- fixed tenure for governors
- Appointed ones must be politically inactive in recent past
- Proper consultation CM of concerned state regarding his appointment and removal.
For better functioning office of governor, it should be out of political interference by centre with increased coordination.
- Recently Election commission of India (ECI) has planned to use Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) in all elections in the future with the view of ensuring credibility and transparency”. In the light of the statement, discuss the circumstance that led to use of VVPAT and its significance. (12.05.2017)
Voter-Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) is a system wherein a paper is generated when a citizen casts his vote as to whom he has given a vote to. It is basically a printer which is attached to EVM and displays information of the candidate one has given vote to.
Continuous claims about malfunctioning of Electoral Voting Machines (EVMs) by various political stakeholders and working on pillars of accountability and transparency by Election Commission (EC) gives scope for introduction of Voter-Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT).
- Election Commission has been accused by various political parties in the country for allegedly deploying ‘tampered’ EVMs.
- They have also petitioned EC to revert back to paper ballot system for greater transparency.
- The Supreme Court has directed the EC to conduct 2019 national elections entirely with these upgraded machines.
- The usage of VVPAT machines of the Election Commission is expected to ensure free and fair elections
- The voters will be able to view the voter-verifiable paper audit trail slip for seven seconds after which it will get deposited in a sealed box.
- VVPAT machines can be regarded as an independent verification system as it (i) allows voters to verify that their votes are cast correctly, (ii) detects possible election fraud or malfunction and (iii) Provides a means to audit the stored electronic results.
- “Recently India signed MOU with London transport system with the view of strengthening public transport system in the country”. In this context, discuss the major challenges faced by Indian cities and the measures taken by government to address the challenges.’’ (13.05.2017)
India is facing an increasing number of challenges due to its rapid rate of urbanization, traffic congestion being one of them, having repercussions on the health of people, environment and economy as a whole.
- Manual scavenging has not been stopped despite several laws established against the practice and the consequent deaths of the people who go inside, due inhalation of poisonous gases
- Widespread open defecation also poses a problem by facilitating spreading of diseases in the local areas
- Overburdened Public transport.
- Public transport inadequacy, Longer commuting, Difficulties for non-motorized transport.
- There are no legal provisions to manage fecal sludge and when there are legal provisions (U.P.) they are not followed.
- National Urban Transport Policy,2006 – Its main purpose is to provide affordable, comfortable, safe and rapid, reliable and sustainable urban transport system, for the growing number of city resident to jobs, education and recreation and such other needs with in our cities.
- National Urban Renewal Mission(NURM), 2005 – The primary objective of the JnNURM is to create economically productive, efficient, equitable and responsive cities
- Introduction to Metro trains
- Smart city programme – Smartness has to be there with respect to governance and service delivery include creative, cyber, digital, e-governed, entrepreneurial, intelligent, knowledge, harnessing the power of Information and communication technology (ICT)
- Swachh Bharat – Clean urban areas will attract tourists and can increase the economic diversity of the urban dwellers and it will be also source for revenue generation for ULB.
Urbanization has undermined old forms of political mobilization based on caste and religious identities and favors local issues to be resolved on right based approach. There should be focused attention to integrated development of infrastructure services in cities covered under the Mission and there should be establishment of linkages between asset-creation and asset-management through a slew of reforms for long-term project sustainability ; Green building concepts should be implemented.
- “The recent Nirbhaya ruling stated that not Police alone but both the state and community at large have a role in shaping public safety especially that of women and children”. In this context, do you think that the role of the police changed over a period of time? Discuss. (15.05.2017)
The recent Nirbhaya ruling discussed more about fundamental assumptions about policing. Particularly women and children safety in the public place.
Changing nature of police:
The focus of law enforcement was initially on disciplining unruly elements disturbing public peace rather than on hunting for criminals depriving others of their life and property. Crime was petty in those days, not requiring any sophisticated methods of investigation and detection. Now, it is not only widespread and violent but also sophisticated with the abundant use of technology.
The rising fear in a community, especially among elders, women and children. Several surveys point to a demand for protection of life more than guarding individual property.
With the phenomenal expansion of the geographic area to be policed and the mind-boggling increase in the number of lives to be guarded the Indian police have been stretched and outnumbered.
The strongest criticism against the police is of their preoccupation with the problems of the political party in power and those of the rich and famous.
The phenomenal rise in private security agencies accounts for the growing lack of trust in the state police. This is a shameful but real state of affairs in most of India.
Role of community along with Police:
- The spread of Internet use at all levels of the police. An offshoot is the use of social media in day-to-day policing. Information on crime incidents and criminals is as a matter of course conveyed to the public in many urban centres with encouraging results. Citizens are also encouraged to report crime through email or over social media.
- The participation of the print and visual media in this dialogue gives further fillip to the exercise of sensitizing the police to the community demand for safety through police processes.
The police’s perception of public safety and their own role here is changing, but only slowly. Along with police anyone in the society has the main role to ensure the safety of women and children in the society.
- “In the spirit of Team India it is stated that the transformation of India needs a partnership of the Union and States rather than central government alone “In the light of the statement, critically examine the role of Minimum Government Maximum Governance, Cooperative federalism and Competitive federalism. (16.05.2017)
India tends to take que from the Western developed economies where the Governmental interference in the economy is minimum and mostly limited to enforcement of laws and provisioning of public services are ensured in timely manner with quality. The maxim ‘Minimum Govt. and maximum governance’ sets the same goal.
Cooperative Federalism is a belief in which all levels of government work together cooperatively to achieve and solve common problems. It enables states’ participation in the formulation and implementation of national policies. On the other hand, Competitive federalism means that regional governments compete with other regional governments to produce better and efficient results.
Role playes by these factors:
- A citizen friendly and accountable administration is the focus of the government. A series of steps to achieve this goal have been initiated.
- These include simplification of procedures, identification and repeal of obsolete/archaic laws/rules, identification and shortening of various forms, leveraging technology to bring in transparency in public interface and a robust public grievance redress system.
- State must be given greater autonomy with regards to Concurrent List particularly issues like health, education, land, labour, natural resources etc. regarding which states find it difficult to restructure and synchronise their financing.
- Since central government makes and enforces the rules of competitive federalism it must insure fair play among different governments.
- Some broad agreement needs to be reached between centre and the states before introducing bills on concurrent subjects, as recommended by Punchi Commission.
As implementation of policies and programmes takes place at the state level, thus co-operation of state is essential for the development goals of the nation. Local self-government, which are called schools of democracy, functions under the state governments only. The dictum Minimum government maximum governance as is being applied across governance, service delivery, health, education, infrastructure and investments is a revolutionary reform taken by the government and needs to be appreciated
- “It is stated that India’s digital transformation need to understand issues and challenges and to merely bring more people online- it is necessary to keep them secure too”. Discuss various aspects. (18.05.2017)
India a country with worlds larger population, shifts constantly and swiftly towards digitization with its policies and governance to ensure transparency, accountability and counter corruption. The government attempting to make India a digital economy. The government has taken several steps under Digital India campaign to achieve this objective. Some of them are Bharatnet Project, BHIM & UPI apps, eNAM.
The effectiveness of such initiatives can be analyzed from following facts;
- BHIM has become one of the most popular app in India. Also use of e-wallet services & PoS machines have picked up pace in post demonetization period.
- Many mandis across several states have become live on e-NAM.
- Bharatnet Project has laid down OFC in more than 1.5 lakh Kms. Many Gram Panchayats have been connected to broadband.
- Usage of online payments increased significantly.
- Digital Literacy remains low.
- Lack of adequate infrastructure to protect data. Eg. Security Details of cardholders of some leading banks were compromised recently.
- Many rural areas remains isolated from internet and cellular services.
- Digital services are not robust enough to cater need to large customers at a time.
Becoming digital is indeed the way forward for India, due to a number of attendant benefits, such as ease of access and operation, and also because of the spill-over effects in the domain of curbing corruption and maladministration. But, at the same time, the importance of becoming digital with the necessary security in place, coupled, with ensuring greater awareness and access for the deprived populace is also a priority that should not be ignored.
- “It is viewed that before embarking on enhancing farm credit year on year, the Government must correct the market imperfections that remain unaddressed till date, otherwise more farm credit is meaningless and it will further farmers indebtedness”. In the light of the statement, discuss the issues and challenges in getting right price for farmers produce and the measures taken by government to address the above issues. (22.05.2017)
Though agriculture now accounts for less than 15% of gross domestic product (GDP), it is still the main source of livelihood for nearly half our population. Agricultural products, in a developing country remain in uniform demand throughout year, while production of most of them is concentrated in some part of the year. This results in fluctuation in prices which can change equations of profit for the farmer.
Agriculture is a state subject and almost all state governments enacted APMC act in 1950’s or so, to bring transparency and end discretion of traders. This is extension of overall government policy which is directed toward food security, remunerative prices to farmers and fair prices to consumers. However, widespread perception for this act is that it has worked contrary to almost every stated objective, atleast in recent past.
Monopoly of any trade (barring few exceptions) is bad, whether it is by some MNC corporation by government or by any APMC. It deprives farmers from better customers, and consumers from original suppliers.
High commission, taxes and levies: Farmers have to pay commission, marketing fee, APMC cess which pushes up costs. Apart from this many states impose Value Added Tax.
Entry Barriers – License fee in these markets are highly prohibitive. In many markets farmers were not allowed to operate.
Cartelization – It is quite often seen that agents in an APMC get together to form a cartel and deliberately restraint from higher bidding.
Introducing one of the largest economic reform by passing the Good and service ( GST) amendment act. This move India towards the single market
Flagship of e-NAM to provide platform to Farmers to easily dispose there stock in market.
Union government requested the states to exempt fruits and vegetables from the purview of APMC act and many state govt has responded positively to this move of central govt.
Government has worked towards developing the national market and for this purpose an e-plateform will be designed from the agriculture tech infrastructure fund(ATIF) so that marketing of agriculture produce will be done through all states without any restriction.
The above mentioned steps will go a long way in the development of agricultural marketing in India, but for their successful implementation, there is need of better coordination between center and state governments. This can be achieved if there is a genuine political will to reform agriculture to bring much needed respite to farm community.
- “Even though various policy measures taken by government for development of agriculture and farmers, the issue of farmers suicide is more concern in recent days and argued that lack of implementation at the ground level is the main reason”. Discuss various aspects. (23.05.2017)
Being an agrarian country, India possesses a substantial number of farmers. But, apparently they are facing acute problem regarding their sole occupation of farming. Being unable to make money out of their incessant labour round the year, farmers are fettered into the hands of penury which is making them even committing suicides.
- Chronic indebtedness is making them to bear constant pressure of money lenders and frequent threats against their assets.
- Small landholdings are not enough to fetch a good amount of crop to be sold out in market and drive money. They are thus limited to subsistence farming only.
- Natural calamities and erratic rainfall has many time ruined their crops and thus clenching them into hands of pauperism.
- Social evils such as dowry for daughter are making them think way too much to procure money .Failing so; it becomes a persistent mental stress which leads them to take up the wrong decision sometimes.
- No output even on using good quality and modified seeds has left them hopeless about furnishing in fields.Peasants go insolvent and give up their lives.
Measures to be taken:
- Provision of low credit facilities at nominal rates.
- Government may go ahead with interest waivers for poor farmers.
- Use of information technologies, electronics and telecommunication, for instance, DD KISSAN Channel for spreading awareness of the government schemes and agricultural and monsoon related information.
Establishment of the counseling kiosks in the villages which timely interact with the farmers making their psychology in balance.
- It’s a high time to look into the matter gravely and should be poised to remove the irony that the food provider is the one dying due to scarcity of food.
- “The recent law commission of India report stated that inconsistency in grant of bail is became a norm over a period of time in the country”. With this view critically examine the situation and its impact on justice system in the country. (26.05.2017)
The recent law commission report stated that inconsistency in bail for the rich and powerful to get bail with ease, while others languish in prison became a new norm in the country.
- The existing system of bail in India is inadequate and inefficient to accomplish its purpose.
- The bail practices should be fair and evidence-based.
- Decisions about custody or release should not be influenced to the detriment of the person accused of an offence by factors such as gender, race, ethnicity, financial conditions or social status.
- The current prison population is made up of undertrials is the great inconsistency in the grant of bail.
- The Supreme Court had noticed this in the past, and bemoaned the fact that poverty appears to be the main reason for the incarceration of many prisoners, as they are unable to afford bail bonds or provide sureties.
Bail law reform is not the panacea for all problems of the criminal justice system. Be it overcrowded prisons or unjust incarceration of the poor, the solution lies in expediting the trial process. For, in our justice system, delay remains the primary source of injustice.
- “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is viewed as a largest-ever sanitation programme has divided into Urban and Rural components “With this view, discuss the main objectives of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and issues and challenges faced by government in implementation in the country. (30.05.2017)
The Urban mission seeks to eliminate open defecation; convert insanitary toilets to flush toilets; eradicate manual scavenging; and facilitate solid waste management.The Rural mission, known as Swachh Bharat Gram inaims to make Village Panchayats free of open defecation.
- Eliminate open defecation.
- Conversion of insanitary toilets to pour flush toilets,
- Eradication of manual scavenging.
- 100% collection and scientific processing/disposal reuse/recycle of Municipal Solid Waste.
- To bring about a behavioral change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices.
- Generate awareness among the citizens about sanitation and its linkages with public health.
- Strengthening of urban local bodies to design, execute and operate systems.
- The funding pattern between the Central Government and the State Government.
- To create awareness and people’s participation in the Mission.
- Role of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) in creating awareness and imparting hygiene education among the local population.
- Behavioral change in sanitation practices.
- “India’s tryst with comprehensive urban reforms started with the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act in 1992 to empower cities”. In the light of the statement, discuss the measures taken by government to empower cities and the challenges that faced by government in such actions. (31.05.2017)
Though India’s tryst with comprehensive urban reforms started with the 74th constitutional amendment act, later various measures taken by government to empower cities through that improving the standard of living of the people.
Smart city mission:
Smart City offers sustainability in terms of economic activities and employment opportunities to a wide section of its residents, regardless of their level of education, skills or income levels.
Promoting mixed land use in area-based developments planning for unplanned areas containing a range of compatible activities and land uses close to one another in order to make land use more efficient. The States will enable some flexibility in land use and building bye-laws to adapt to change.
It planned to ensure basic infrastructure services relating to water supply, sewerage, septage management, storm water drains, transport and development of green spaces and parks with special provision for meeting the needs of children.
Implementation of this Mission will be linked to promotion of urban reforms such as e-governance, constitution of professional municipal cadre, devolving funds and functions to urban local bodies, review of Building bye-laws, improvement in assessment and collection of municipal taxes, credit rating of urban local bodies, energy and water audit and citizen-centric urban planning.
- Population growth and rapid urbanization.
- Financing for various infrastructure projects.
- Technical constraints of ULBs.
- Three-tier governance.
- Capacity building programme.
- Changing the existing legacy city infrastructure to make it smart.
- Traffic Safety and Accessibility.
Overcoming India’s urbanization and sustainability challenges won’t be easy. But by bringing together a diverse group of stakeholders for a solutions-oriented conversation will empower cities in the country.